Report summary

An effective vaccine ecosystem equipped to meet the challenges of future infectious disease threats

This report explores the barriers to vaccine development for important infectious disease threats. It looks at vaccines that lack clear commercial markets, but target diseases that cause major loss of life, disability and illness, or risk being the source of future epidemics.  

Science has the potential to solve many of the world’s most significant infectious disease threats through creating new vaccines. However, without significant reform of the markets and ecosystem which drive vaccine development, the likelihood is that the world will not see these come to fruition. 

Key findings 

We need to rewrite the rules of the vaccine ecosystem and the market so they work for all infectious disease threats that affect people’s lives everywhere around the world. 

Vaccine development for Covid-19 has shown us what can happen when there is a global market and funding for a vaccine. But many infectious diseases affect parts of the world without the wealth or R&D capacity to drive forward the vaccines which could prevent them. 

Key findings of the report include: 

There is no silver bullet to creating a fairer and most sustainable system for vaccine development. Only by tackling different barriers in a systemic fashion will it be possible to build a fairer and more effective vaccine ecosystem. 


Full report

Wellcome short briefings on key findings

Contact us 

For more information contact: Charlie Weller, Head of Prevention, Infectious Disease at and Deborah King, Research Lead, Vaccines at